An eating disorder is a complex mental health issue characterised by disturbed eating behaviours, distorted beliefs, and extreme concerns about food, eating and body size, shape or weight.
Eating disorders can be associated with major medical complications which can affect the whole body. They are not a phase, a lifestyle choice or about vanity. No one would choose to have an eating disorder.
- Anyone can develop an eating disorder, including all ages, genders, cultures and backgrounds.
- Eating disorders affect about 9% of the population, but eating disorders are frequently under-reported, so the actual number is likely to be higher. This means that over 1 million Australians experience an eating disorder.
- Eating disorders can occur in everyone from children to the elderly.
- There can be serious complications associated with an eating disorder. They include; digestive problems, hormonal problems, heart and blood pressure problems and even death.
- The causes of eating disorders are complex, but a combination of genetics, psychological factors and cultural influences are thought to affect the likelihood that someone will develop an eating disorder.
A person with an eating disorder may have disturbed eating patterns or behaviours, and extreme concerns over the size, shape or weight of their body. Symptoms can include, but are not limited to:
- frequent or obsessive thoughts about food, body size, shape or weight or eating patterns
- rapid weight loss or gain or frequent changes in weight
- feeling depressed, anxious, irritable or stressed
- difficulties with expressing emotions and low self-worth
- eating food in smaller or larger amounts than is considered normal
- using food as a way to deal with boredom or stress
- using food as a way to manage uncomfortable or distressing emotions, or to feel in control
- using food and eating, or food restriction, as form of self-punishment
- eating in private or avoiding social situations involving food
- unhealthy or extreme activities to compensate for food consumed, such as excessive exercising, vomiting or use of laxatives.
Due to the nature of an eating disorder, a person may go to great lengths to hide or disguise their behavior and may experience intense feelings of guilt or shame.
"I’d isolated myself from everyone around me and limited my relationships to basic communication. I didn’t want people to see me eat or distract me from my study. As the weight dropped, I lost the ability to function physically and mentally, and I couldn’t see a future." - Rachael
Types of eating disorders
There are several broad categories of eating disorders. Some of the most common are summarised below. A large number of people have other eating issues and distorted body image which are not covered by these diagnoses, but still have a significant impact on their mental health and quality of life.
Binge eating disorder
Peoplewith binge eating disorder may eat large amounts of food in a short period of time. They will often feel ‘out of control’ about their eating and may not be able to stop. People with binge eating disorder often feel guilty or ashamed about the amount of food they eat during a binge eating episode.
People with bulimia may eat large amounts of food in a hosrt period of time, then try to compensate for the food in unhealthy ways. People living with bulimia also place a high value on their weight or body shape. People with bulimia will often go to great lengths to hide their eating and exercise habits. Many people with bulimia do not lose weight but may experience weight fluctuations.
People with anorexia nervosa place severe restrictions on the amount and type of food they consume and place a high value on their weight or body shape. The restrictino f food leads to a significantly low body weight in the context or their age, gender, and other factors, which can lead to a range of physical health problems. They may lose a large amount of weight in a short amount of time, and may fear gaining weight.
Other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED)
Some people may present with many of the symptoms of other eating disorders, but will not meet the full criteria for that diagnosis. In these cases, the disorder may be classified as OSFED. An example subtype of OSFED is 'atypical' anorexia nervosa, where a person meets the diagnosis for anorexia nervosa aside from being classified as a significantly low body weight. OSFED can be just as serious as other eating disorders. All eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that cause significant emotional and physical distress.
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)
ARFID involves avoidance of and aversion to food and eating, resulting in significant weight loss or nutritional deficiency. For people living with ARFID, the restriction around food is caused by a lack of interest in food, sensitivity to the sensory qualities of food or concern about other consequences of eating, rather than distress about body image or weight gain.
For further information, the NECD provides informative fact sheets on eating disorders.
It is important to remember that you cannot tell that a person has an eating disorder by their body weight. Eating disorders affect people of all shapes and sizes.
Help for people with eating disorders
With specialised treatment, recovery from an eating disorder is possible. The earlier someone with an eating disorder begins treatment, the greater the likelihood of a shorter recovery process and better the health outcomes. It is important to remember recovery is a unique journey for each person. Individuals may share common, yet different experiences, goals and outcomes.
If you suspect that you or someone you know may have an eating disorder, it is important to seek help immediately. The Butterfly Foundation National Helpline (1800 334 673) is a good place to start. They can provide a referral to someone with specialised knowledge in eating disorders.
Treatment may need to involve a number of different health professionals, for example, GPs, psychologists, dietitians and other allied health professionals. This is because best practice treatment will take into consideration the mental, physical, emotional, behavioural and environmental needs of the person with the eating disorder.
Treatment for eating disorders can include counselling, hospital stays, outpatient programs, community programs, and support groups.
It’s important to remember that eating disorders are serious mental illnesses with potentially life-threatening consequences. Therefore, it is crucial to seek help immediately.
The Butterfly Foundation is a national organisation representing people affected by eating disorders and negative body image, and their family and friends. They offer phone support, factsheets, treatment and recovery programs and training.
The National Eating Disorders Collaboration is an initiative of the Federal Government, and brings together people and organisations with an expertise in eating disorders.
This factsheet has been produced in partnership with the National Eating Disorders Collaboration, an initiative of the Australian Government Department of Health.