If you, or someone you know, is having suicidal thoughts and is in immediate danger, please call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance. Don’t leave the person alone until help arrives.
For help and support, call Lifeline on 13 11 14 or Suicide Call Back Service on 1300 659 467.
If you have thoughts of suicide, this guide is designed to help you recognise your warning signs, find the right support, and keep safe. It also has information for managing life if you have experienced a suicide attempt.
Being able to tell whether your feelings are out of the ordinary can be hard to work out sometimes. It helps to know that changes in behaviour can provide a clue.
Suicidal thoughts can come and go, and may seem to come out of nowhere, but they often follow a time of gradual change in how you feel or things you do.
Take a look at this list and note those things which are true for you when you start to have suicidal feelings:
If a number of these statements are true of you, talk to someone about getting help. If a number of these apply to you, it is very important that you talk to your GP or trusted mental health professional about how you feel.
Stressful events can make life difficult for anyone, especially if you have a mental health issue. For some people, this stress may lead to thoughts of suicide because of how they feel and behave in response to stress. Most people who have these thoughts do not actually take their own lives, but cannot see any other way out of the distress they feel.
A change in treatment (such as discharge from psychiatric care) can be a time of higher risk. Knowing that getting stressed can affect you this way means that you can be prepared, and take extra care of yourself if they happen.
Some events can add more stress to your life – have any of these happened in your life recently:
Sometimes positive things can be stressful too, such as the birth of a child, or a new job or relationship.
Everyone who experiences stressful events does not become suicidal of course. However, they can lead to suicidal thoughts and feelings in people who are vulnerable to them, so it is worth taking extra care of yourself when they do happen.
If you become suicidal, family and friends, plus treatment and support services can help get you through this period.
When someone experiences suicidal thoughts, they often feel isolated and alone, and that nobody understands or can help their distress. That’s why it’s worth the effort to try and get a support network in place before any times of crisis – to help get through a period of suicidal feelings.
This can include clinical care, psychological therapy, and support services in the community. Your own informal network of family, friends, or other people you know who can be supportive, is very important too.
It also helps to figure out what helps you cope when times are tough. These can become a set of strategies you use to feel safe or reduce distress when you’re struggling. Also finding what gives you meaning, whether that’s hobbies, goals, relationships or helping others, can also provide purpose and self-confidence.
Having good support means receiving the best treatment you can get for your mental health issue. This includes a doctor and other mental health workers who help you manage your symptoms, who listen and respond to your concerns, and are supportive and respectful.
Talking to a psychiatrist, GP, psychologist or other suitably qualified person about suicidal feelings can help you work out new ways of managing them.
For further information on the different kind of clinical treatments available, please see ‘Clinical care’ in the Treatments for mental health issues guide.
Getting help is not just about treating symptoms. Mental health issues can sometimes affect the way people are able to get on with their everyday lives too. Community support services such as the NDIS support people to engage with what is meaningful.
For further information on the different kinds of support services available, please see ‘Support services’ in the Treatments for mental health issues guide.
Minimising stress can play an important part in helping you avoid or overcome suicidal thoughts.
Worries about money are a common source of stress for everyone, so it makes sense to get help to organise this side of your life.
Talk to a Centrelink Advisor or Social Worker, and attempt to build up a good relationship with them. Try to get the best advice and support you can on benefits, community support and help in getting back to work or study.
Recognising warning signs can help avoid a crisis situation, but it’s not always possible to do this. It may be that when you feel suicidal you hide these feelings, so that others don’t realise. Sometimes you may not realise how unwell you are. That’s why it’s a good idea to discuss preparing a crisis plan beforehand with a trusted person.
This can be as simple as making a list of essential names and numbers to call if you feel at risk. It could include your local mental health crisis team, a doctor or other health professional, a family member or friend you’ve agreed to contact if you become suicidal, and relevant crisis helplines or emergency services.
For further information, please see ‘Safety plan’ in this guide.
Crisis teams – sometimes called Crisis Assessment and Treatment Teams (CATT) or Psychiatric Emergency Teams (PET) – are responsible for helping people when they become extremely unwell. Most Community Mental Health Services have a crisis team available 24-hours-a-day.
Crisis Teams can assess people in their own home or at a clinic, and may arrange treatment, including admission to hospital if appropriate. They should also provide information and support to family and friends.
If you have harmed yourself or attempted suicide, you should be taken to a hospital Emergency Department as soon as possible for medical treatment.
If you are unwilling to seek help and someone else - like a family member or professional - is worreid you are at risk of harming yourself, then you may be treated as an involuntary patient.
It’s possible to be treated involuntarily either in hospital or while living at home. In either case you are legally bound to accept treatment because otherwise your situation would be life-threatening.
For further information, please see ‘Clinical treatments’ in the Treatments for mental health issues guide.
Here are some tips to show your family and friends in case there are times when you are unwell and feeling suicidal. It might be helpful to share these with family and friends in case you are in a crisis and not willing to get help at the time. You can also share our factsheet on how to help when someone is suicidal with them.
When people are unwell it is common for them to feel that the whole world is against them. The first step in encouraging someone to accept help is to acknowledge their fears, anxiety or other emotions, even if you are struggling to understand why they feel that way.
When people are suicidal they can often feel helpless and unmotivated. Offering to assist someone in seeking help – by making an appointment or driving them there, for example – can make it seem that little bit easier to get help.
People who are unwell or distressed often put on a brave face to cover how they feel. That is why it is important to reassure them that you value their honesty and that you will listen and not judge them, regardless of how they are feeling.
Emphasise that having suicidal thoughts is not something to be ashamed of; is something experienced by many people, and that talking about it does not increase the risk of someone taking their own life.
When people feel suicidal it can seem like nothing will ever feel good again. Telling them that they will feel better if they take steps towards getting help may be just the incentive they need to move forward.
Remind them that even small steps matter, and they are already making a good start by talking to you.
When people feel suicidal, it is naturally very distressing for family and friends too. All too often, everyone ends up feeling guilty or inadequate for no reason.
At times like this it is especially helpful to contact a carer support organisation. Contact the SANE counselling support on 1800 18 SANE (7263) for referral to a group in your area.
For further information, please see our Guide for Families, Friends and Carers.
When people are depressed they may even see ‘getting support’ as something negative.
Encourage the person to turn these thoughts around and see support in a positive way. Reassure them that this period of feeling bad will pass, and they can get through it.
Here are some common examples of things people say and helpful responses to them:
It’s common for people to feel guilt after a suicide attempt, especially about the distress they have caused others. Encourage the person to put these feelings aside as much as possible, and focus on the present and the future.
Making a safetyor crisis plan means preparing for what to do if you feel suicidal in the future - thinking about your triggers and the things you can do by yourself or with support to stay safe. Create your own safety plan with the Beyond Now safety planning app or online.
A safety plan involves filling out the following sections. You can do this alone, with a family member, or in discussion with your GP or a mental health professional.
1. Tell someone how you feel (for example, family member, friend, school counsellor). Ask them to stay with you until you get help. Being with someone, even over the phone, increases your safety or;
2. Contact a medical professional and tell them it is an emergency:
3. Or call an appropriate crisis Helpline – see ‘Make a list of who to contact in a crisis’ below.
With help you should start to feel better and be able to keep yourself safe. Until then, there are things you can do to relieve some of the distress and reduce the desire to end your life:
Put together a list of essential names and numbers which you can call if you feel at risk, for example:
There are lots of things you can do for yourself to help fight suicidal thoughts, so that they don’t become overwhelming. You can do this by yourself, with a family member or friend, or with the support of a mental health professional.
Once you’ve found out what support is available, the next step is to develop a positive lifestyle which gives a rhythm to your life.
Making a routine helps you feel balanced and purposeful. It makes it easier to get out of bed in the morning if you have an idea of what you will you be doing – if there is something to look forward to and achieve that means something to you, however small.
Enjoying what you do can give you the motivation to keep going and to develop a sense of purpose and of identity. Here are some suggestions to bear in mind when preparing your plan.
Feeling isolated and lonely can encourage suicidal thoughts. When making your plan, include doing things that are sociable and maintain contact with others. As well as seeing health professionals and going along to a day program, being a member of a club, group or church can also be helpful in this way.
Getting back into a routine after a period of feeling suicidal can be a challenge. That’s why it’s a good idea to avoid over-doing it at first. Try to be active and do things you enjoy, but not so much that you feel stressed.
The stress of doing things you don’t enjoy can make it harder to deal with suicidal thoughts. The more you enjoy something, the easier it will be to stick to a good routine.
Spend some time thinking about what really interests you, or trying out something you always meant to do – it can make a big difference to how you feel about your life.
Recognise and build on things you know you enjoy. For example, if you like tennis, find out at your local Tennis Club or Neighbourhood House if they have any classes. Apart from being a lot of fun and good for your health, it’s also a useful place to meet people with similar interests.
Don’t allow new activities to get boring – remember variety is the spice of life. For example, have some things you do on your own (like yoga or listening to music) and others you do with other people (like walking in the park or going to see a movie).
Doing something to help others, such as volunteer work, can also be a useful way of distracting yourself from feeling down.
Try to be a friend to yourself. Remind yourself about positive things about yourself, however small. Don’t fall into the trap of being critical of yourself all the time, and going over and over negative things in your mind. If you catch yourself doing this, make an effort to stop, and try to think of positive things in your life.
It’s not always easy to settle into a routine, especially if you are not used to it. Treat your plan as ‘a servant not a master’, and revise it depending on your changing needs.
Stress is the name for a feeling of anxiety that can threaten to overwhelm us. While a little stress may be stimulating, too much can make it hard to cope and lead to suicidal thoughts in people with a mental illness.
Planning your life to avoid too much stress is a good way to reduce the chance of having suicidal thoughts in the future. If you do experience suicidal thoughts, you will be in a better position to deal with them.
Here are some tips to reduce stress.
Work out which situations make you feel stressed and try to avoid them. For example, if you tend to feel stressed or lonely at the weekend, you could plan to do more relaxing or sociable things on these days. While you can’t always choose when you have company, making sure you are active is a good way to help take your mind off any feelings of stress or isolation.
Making time to do things you enjoy is a great stress-reliever. There are lots of enjoyable things to do that are free or cost little, and do not harm your health. For example, go to your local cinema on the day when tickets are cheaper (often Mondays or Tuesdays).
Talk over how you feel with a family member, friend or health professional – you’ll be surprised at how things can seem a lot easier after you’ve spoken about them. Remember that listening to how others feel is important too.
Trying to do lots of things at once is likely to make anyone become stressed. It is even more likely to cause problems if you experience mental health issues and have periods when you feel suicidal. That’s why it’s important to learn to prioritise – doing just a few things in a day that you really need or want to do.
When you’re stressed or feeling depressed, it can seem like there’s no way out from problems that trouble you.
Try to take a fresh approach which helps you look at the problem from a different angle. For example, if there is conflict with someone you share a house with – instead of going through the same arguments with them, talk to someone who isn’t involved about how to deal with the situation, such as a case manager or worker at a day program.
Being physically active and eating healthy food can make a big difference to how you feel. There’s now scientific evidence that exercise really does make you feel better mentally as well as physically. This doesn’t mean going to the gym every day – simply going for a walk a few times a week can make a big difference.
For further information, please see the Healthy Living guide for more suggestions and information about this topic.
Recovering from a suicide attempt is a major challenge, but one you can use to help yourself.
With support, a plan and good advice, you can learn to move on from an attempt, better able to deal with any suicidal feelings you may have in the future.
Here are some tips from people who have ‘been there’ for getting back on track after a suicide attempt.
Before someone becomes suicidal they often experience a similar pattern of symptoms – warning signs that form their so-called ‘relapse signature’.
If you or others can learn to recognise these signs, you can tell your doctor so that action can be taken before things get any worse. Think about what your warning signs are – make a list and discuss them with your health worker, family or friends.
While it may be tempting to feel that you have taken a turn for the worse, take time to look at how far you have come. For example, you may have felt like taking an overdose again, but instead asked someone to keep the medication safe, and called someone to talk about how you were feeling.
The period after a suicide attempt can be a good time to re-examine your goals. For example, major life changes - like starting a demanding new job - can lead to stress or low mood; it might be time to try new work or cut back. Another example: some people stop taking medication because of side-effects, leading to a relapse. A better goal would be to talk to a doctor about tackling the side effects, possibly lowering the dose slowly under supervision or trying other options.
Feeling guilty about a suicide attempt is common and understandable because of the distress caused to family and friends. However, dwelling on feelings of blame and guilt doesn’t help anyone. It’s in everyone’s interest to try to reframe these thoughts and instead focus on the present and the future.
For some people, certain stressful situations and how they feel about and respond to them can bring on suicidal feelings. Think about whether this is true for you, and what you can do to avoid these situations, or to deal with them in a more positive way that does not make you feel stressed. For example, getting in touch with your work's HR department to discuss flexible work arrangements.
Coming through a suicide attempt gives you a vivid lesson in what needs to happen if you become suicidal again. Use this lesson to draw up a plan of what you and others need to do in this situation, in order for you to be safe and get help.